You are here: Home Study Results Pollution in People Report References
Document Actions


References list for the Pollution in People report

in alphabetical order by first author or agency


Ahlbom J, Fredriksson A, Eriksson P. 1995. Exposure to an organophosphate (DFP) during a defined period in neonatal life induces permanent changes in brain muscarinic receptors and behaviour in adult mice. Brain Research 667:13-19.

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2005. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. CAS #7440-38-2.  Available at

ATSDR. 2005. Toxicological Profile for Lead. CAS #7439-92-1.  Available at

ATSDR. 2002. Toxicological Profile for DDT, DDE, and DDD. CAS #x 50-29-3, 72-55-9, and 72-54-8.  Available at

ATSDR. 2002. Toxicological profile for di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at

ATSDR. 2000. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).  Available at

ATSDR. 1995. Toxicological profile for diethyl phthalate. Sciences International, Inc. under subcontract Research Triangle Institute. Contract No. 205-93-0606 U.S. Department of Health and Health Services.  Available at

ATSDR. 1999. Toxicological Profile for Mercury. CAS #7439-97-6.  Available at

Bocio A, Llobet JM, Domingo JL, Corbella J, Teixidó A, Casas C. 2003. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in foodstuffs:  human exposure through the diet. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51:3191-3195.

Bornehag C, Sundell J, Weschler CJ, Sigsgaard T, Lundgren B, Hasselgren M, Hägerhead-Engman L. 2004. The association between asthma and allergic symptoms in children and phthalates in house dust:  a nested case-control study. Environmental Health Perspectives 112(14):1393-1397.  Available at

Butt CM, Diamond ML, Truong J, Ikonomou MG, Ter Schure AFH. 2004. Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in southern Ontario as measured in indoor and outdoor window organic films. Environmental Science and Technology 38(3):724-731.

Calafat, A. 2006. Perfluorochemicals in pooled serum samples from United States residents in 2001 and 2002. Environmental Science and Technology, published on American Chemical Society website Feb 22, 2006.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2005. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Department of Health and Human Services.

Chanda SM, Pope CN. 1996. Neurochemical and neurobehavioral effects of repeated gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos in maternal and developing rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 53(4):771-776.

CHEJ (Center for Health, Environment, and Justice), The Environmental Health Strategy Center. 2004. PVC:  Bad News Comes in 3s.

Darnerud PO, Eriksen GS, Jóhannesson T, Larsen PB, Viluksela M. 2001. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers:  occurrence, dietary exposure and toxicology. Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (Supplement 1):49-68. Available at

Darnerud PO. 2003. Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and wildlife. Environment International 29:841-853.

Davis JR, Brownson RC, Garcia R, Bentz BJ, Turner A.1993. Family pesticide use and
childhood brain cancer. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 24:87–92.

DiGangi J, Schettler T, Cobbing M, and Rossi M. 2002. Aggregate Exposures to Phthalates in Humans. Health Care Without Harm report. Available at

Duty SM, Singh NP, Silva MJ, Barr DB, Brock JW, Ryan L, Herrick RF, Christiani DC, and Hauser R. 2005. The relationship between environmental exposures to phthalates and DNA damage in human sperm using the neutral comet assay. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(9):1164-1169.  Available at

EQI (Environmental Quality Institute). 2005. An Investigation of Factors Related to Levels of Mercury in Human Hair. Technical Report 05-150. Available at:, Accessed March 7, 2006.

Ericksson P, Jakobsson E, Fredriksson A. 2001. Brominated flame retardants:  a novel class of developmental neurotoxicants in our environment?  Environmental Health Perspectives 109(9):903-908.  Available at

Ericksson P, Viberg H, Jakobsson E, Örn U, Fredriksson A. 2002. A brominated flame retardant, 2,2’,4,4’5-pentabromodiphenyl ether:  uptake, retention, and induction of neurobehavioral alterations in mice during a critical phase of neonatal brain development. Toxicological Sciences 67:98-103.

Eskenazi B, Harley K, Bradman A, Weltzien E et al. 2004. Association of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Environmental Health Perspectives 112(10):1116-1124.  Available at

Eskenazi B, Brandman A, Castorina R. 1999. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, Supplement 3:409-419.  Available at

EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2003. Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce. Available at Accessed March 19, 2003.

EWG. 2000. Beauty Secrets. Available at Accessed April 14, 2006.

GAO (General Accounting Office). 2005. Chemical Regulation:  Options Exist to Improve EPA’s Ability to Assess Health Risks and Manage Its Chemical Review Program. GAO-05-458.

Gilbert S. 2004. A Small Dose of Toxicology:  The Health Effects of Common Chemicals. CRC Press, New York.

Goldenthal EI. Jessup DC, Geil RG, Mehring, JS. 1979. Ninety-day Subacute Rhesus Monkey Toxicity Study. Study No. 137-087, International Research and Development Corporation, Mattawan, MI. FYI-0500-1378.

Gray LE, Ostby J, Furr J, Price M, Rao Veeramachaneni DN, Parks L. 2000. Phthalates and male sexual differentiation. Toxicological Sciences 58, 350-365.

Green R, Hauser R, Calafat AM, Weuve J, Schettler T, Ringer S, Huttner K, Hu H. 2005. Use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-containing medical products and urinary levels of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in neonatal intensive care units. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(9):1222-1225.  Available at

Hauser R, Calafat AM. 2005. Phthalates and human health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 62:806-818.

Health Canada 2004. Screening assessment report – Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

Health Care Without Harm. 2005. Design for Health:  Summit for Massachusetts Health Care Decision Makers. Available at Accessed March 21, 2006.

Hoppin JA, Ulmer R, London SJ. Phthalate exposure and pulmonary function. Environmental Health Perspectives 112(5):571-574.  Available at

Ikonomou et al. 2000. Congener patterns, spatial and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in biota samples from the Canadian West Coast and the Northwest Territories. Organohalogen Compounds 47:77-80.

Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW. 2002. Association of prenatal exposure to an environmental contaminant with intellectual function in childhood. Journal of Toxicology – Clinical Toxicology 40(4):467-75.

Jones-Otazo HA, Clarke JP, Diamond ML, Archbold JA, Ferguson G, Harner T, Richardson GM, Ryan JJ, Wilford B. 2005. Is house dust the missing exposure pathway for PBDEs? An analysis of the urban fate and human exposure to PBDEs. Environmental Science and Technology 39(14):5121-5130.

Kannan K, Corsolini S, Falandysz J, Fillmann F, Kumar KS, et al. 2004. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from several countries. Environmental Science and Technology 38(17):4489-4495.

Kegley S, Katten A, Moses M. 2003. Secondhand Poisons. Available at Accessed May 8, 2006.

King County. 2005. Industrial Pretreatment Quarterly. Vol XXXI(1). Available at Accessed March 30, 2006.

Kudo N, Kawashima Y. 2003. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid in humans and animals. Journal of Toxicological Sciences 28(2):49-57.

Lanphear BP et al. 2005. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function:  an international pooled analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(7):894-899.  Available at

Lema 2006. Evaluating potential health impacts of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants:  endocrine disrupting effects and developmental toxicity in two fish models. Poster presented at Toxics in Puget Sound Forum, April 5, 2006.

Lebeuf et al. 2004. Levels and Temporal Trends (1988 – 1999) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada. Environmental Science and Technology 39(11)2971-2977.

Longnecker MP, Klebanoff MA, Zhou H, Brock JW. 2001. Association between maternal serum concentrations of the DDT metabolite DDE and preterm and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth. The Lancet 358(9276): 110-4.

Lu C, Toepel K, Irish R, Fenske R, Barr D, Bravo R. 2005. Organic diets significantly lower children’s exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(2):260-263.  Available at

3M 2000. Biodegradation study of PFOS. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrative Record Number AR226-0057.

Mazdai A, Dodder NG, Abernathy MP, Hites RA, Bisgsby RM. 2003. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal and fetal blood samples. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(9):1249-1252.  Available at

McDonald T. 2005. Polybrominated diphenylether levels among United States residents: daily intake and risk of harm to the developing brain and reproductive organs. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 1(4): 343-354.

McDuffie HH, Pahwa P, McLaughlin JR, Spinelli JJ, Fincham S, Dosman JA, Robson D,
Skinnider LF, Choi NW. 2001. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma and specific pesticide exposures in men: Cross-Canada study of pesticides and health. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 10:1155-1163.

MMWR. 2001. Occupational and take-home lead poisoning associated with restoring chemically stripped furniture – California, 1998. 50(13):246-248.

National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury. National Academies Press.

Oken E, Wright RO, Kleinman KP, Bellinger D, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Hu H, JW Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW. 2005. Maternal fish consumption, hair mercury, and infant cognition in a U.S. cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(10)1376-1380.  Available at

Olsen GW, Huang HY, Helzsouer KJ, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff JL, Mandel JH. 2005. Historical comparison of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorooctanoate, and other fluorochemicals in human blood. Environmental Health Perspectives 113:539-545.  Available at

Olsen, GW. 2002. 3M Company, Medical Department. Identification of Fluorochemicals in Human Sera. III. Pediatric Participants in a Group A Streptococci Clinical Trail Investigation. Final Report. U.S. EPA Administrative Record AR226-1085.

O’Neill SM, West JE, Ylitalo GM, Sloan CA, Krahn P, Collier TK. 2006. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from Puget Sound. Poster presented at Toxics in Puget Sound Forum April 5, 2006.

OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2002. Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and its Salts.
PANNA - deleted

Pogoda JM, Preston-Martin S. 1997. Household pesticides and risk of pediatric brain tumors. Environmental Health Perspectives 105:1214-1220.  Available at

Renner, R. 2001. Growing concerns over perfluorinated chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology 35(7):154-160.

Ross P. 2006. Fireproof killer whales:  flame-retardant chemicals and the conservation imperative in the charismatic icon of British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63:224-234.

Ross G. 2004. The public health implications of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 59(3)275-91.

Rothlein J, Rohlman D, Lasarev M, Phillips J, Muniz J, McCauley L. 2006. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in agricultural and nonagricultural Hispanic workers. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(5):691-696.  Available at

Schantz SL, Widholm JJ, Rice DC. 2003. Effects of PCB exposure on neuropsychological function in children. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(3):357-376.  Available at

Schecter A, Päpke O, Tung K, Staskal D, Birnbaum L. 2004. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers contamination of United States food. Environmental Science and Technology.

Schettler T, Stein J, Reich F, Valenti M. 2000. In Harm’s Way: Toxic Threats to Child Development. Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility.

Sharp R, Lunder S. 2004. In the Dust:  Toxic Fire Retardants in American Homes. Environmental Working Group report, available at

She J, Petreas M, Winkler J, Visita P, McKinney M, Kopec D. 2002. PBDEs in the San Francisco Bay Area:  Measurements in harbor seal blubber and human breast adipose tissue. Chemosphere 46:697-707.

Sjödin A, Patterson DG, Bergman A. 2003. A review on human exposure to brominated flame retardants—particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environment International 29:829-839.

Sjödin A. 2004. Concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house hold dust—inhalation a potential route of human exposure. Abstract presented at BFR2004 Conference, Toronto Canada, June 2004.

Song et al. 2004. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the sediments of the Great Lakes. 1. Lake Superior. Environmental Science and Technology 38(12):3286-3293.

Stapleton HM, Dodder NG, Offenberg JH, Schantz MM, Wise SA. 2005. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust and clothes dryer lint. Environmental Science and Technology 39(4):925-932.

Swan SH, Main KM, Liu F, Stewart SL et al. 2005. Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(8):1056-1061.  Available at

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). 2006. Pesticide Data Program. Annual Summary Calendar Year 2004.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Website. Arsenic in Drinking Water:  Basic Information. Accessed March 7, 2006.

USEPA. 2004. 1998-1999 Pesticide Market Estimates:  Usage. Available at Accessed March 31, 2006.

USEPA 2003. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity Associated with Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid and its Salts. Accessed March 6, 2006.

USEPA. 2003. USEPA. 2003a. Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision (IRED) for Carbaryl. Available at

USEPA. 2001. Azinphos-Methyl IRED Facts. Available at Accessed March 31, 2006.

USEPA. 1999. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Update:  Impact on Fish Advisories. EPA Fact Sheet EPA-823-F-99-019. Available at Accessed March 13, 2006.

USEPA. 1999. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. EPA 735-R-98-003.

USEPA. 1972. DDT Ban Takes Effect. News release posted on EPA website. Available at Accessed March 13, 2006.

USEPA. 1975. DDT Regulatory History:  A Brief Survey (to 1975). Available at Accessed March 13, 2006.

USEPA. 1979. EPA Bans PCB Manufacture; Phases Out Uses. News release posted on EPA website. Available at Accessed March 13, 2006.

USFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2002. Lead Acetate in Hair Dye Products. Office of Cosmetics and Colors Fact Sheet.

Van Wendel de Joode B, Wesseling C, Kromhout H, Monge P, Garcia M, Mergler D. 2001. Chronic nervous-system effects of long-term occupational exposure to DDT. The Lancet 357:1014-1016.

Viberg H, Fredriksson A, Jakobsson E, Örn U, Eriksson P. 2003. Neurobehavioral derangements in adult mice receiving decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 209) during a defined period of neonatal brain development. Tox Sciences 76:112-120.

Wasserman GA, Liu X, Parvez F, Ahsan H, Factor-Litvak P, van Green A, V Slavkovich V et al. 2004. Water arsenic exposure and children’s intellectual function in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Environmental Health Perspectives 112(13):1329-33.  Available at

WDOE (Washington State Department of Ecology), WDOH (Washington State Department of Health). 2005. Washington State Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Chemical Action Plan.

WDOE (Washington State Department of Ecology), WDOH (Washington State Department of Health). 2003. Washington State Mercury Chemical Action Plan. Department of Ecology Publication No. 03-03-001.

WDOH (Washington State Department of Health). 2006. Office of Environmental Health Assessments. Fish and Shellfish Consumption Advisories in Washington State. Available at Accessed March 13, 2006.

WSDA (Washington State Department of Agriculture). 2003. Carbaryl use profile. Obtained by Washington Toxics Coalition through public records request.

WDOH (Washington State Department of Health). 2006. Washington State Department of Health Website. Fish and Shellfish Consumption Advisories in Washington State. Available at Accessed March 16, 2006.

WDOH. 2001. News Release. State Issues Fish Consumption Advisory:  Too much Mercury.

Wilson, M, DA Chia and BC Ehlers. 2006. Green Chemistry in California:  A Framework for Leadership in Chemicals Policy and Innovation. California Policy Research Center, University of California.

Young JG, Eskenazi B, Gladstone EA, Bradman A et al. 2005. Association between in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and abnormal reflexes in neonates. Neurotoxicology 26:199-209.

Zheng T, Zahm SH, Cantor KP, Weisenburger DD, Zhang Y, Blair A. 2001. Agricultural
exposure to carbamate pesticides and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 43(7):641-649.

Zhou T, Taylor MM, DeVito MJ, Crofton KM. 2002. Developmental exposure to brominated diphenyl ethers results in thyroid hormone disruption. Toxicological Sciences 66:105-106.

Zhou T, Ross DG, DeVito MJ, and KM Crofton. 2001. Effects of short-term in vivo exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on thyroid hormones and hepatic enzyme activities in weanling rats. Toxicological Sciences 61:76-82.